3500B.C. – 1550 A.D. Ortoroid, Ceramic, Ciboney, Arawak, and Carib tribes.

1493 A.D. Christopher Columbus came on November 14th, and landed on Salt River. He was welcomed by lethal arrows in the air from the tribal people whom he ran into and had a quick conflict as they had be en inhabiting these territories before 2000 BC. This important conflict was the first of many more to come as Coulombs chronicled it as "Cabos de Flechas" ( Point of Arrows). In the centuries to come Puerto Rico became a huge Spanish fort island, while this area became a battle ground for survival. Columbus continued for now on his journey headed north where he found many archipelagos that he named "De Ursula Las Once Mil Virgenes" (The 11,000 virgins). His inspiration being the mythical virgins that followed Saint Ursula to martyrdom in Rome.

Spain is considered the first European nation to colonize, settle or conquer the island. Columbus was contracted by Spain and most surely captured “Indians” for slave labor before the Dutch and English came to the area.

1500's: Spanish Settlement-In the 16th and early 17th century the Spanish colonizers visited St. Croix off and on and probably had small private settlements due to the close proximity to Puerto Rico it was important to visit the islands around and police the general area. The same as cured in and around St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, Vieques, and Culebra all of these and more were named the Virgins, by Columbus who claimed them all for Spain.

1621: The English were the first European country to formally settle St. Croix, but because of the same claim of ownership and the policing of the area the English were murdered and some transported to Puerto Rico.

Spanish monitoring and quasi control:

1625-1631: St. Croix was colonized by both the Dutch and the English almost simultaneously.

1645: English and Dutch fight a big fight after many small fights and disagreements over land and the legal rights to St. Croix because the British Governor was murdered in the Dutch governors house, as a result the Dutch Governor was killed in a battle. The Dutch elected a new governor who was invited by the English to reestablish good relations but only under false pretenses because the newly elected Dutch governor was arrested and subsequently killed and whose dead body was paraded on the streets. The Dutch were also trying to settle Tortola B.V.I. around 1648.

1650: Spanish murdered and drove the English off of St. Croix in August. The Spanish had a major colony on Puerto Rico by now and did not want any of the unrest, turbulence and wars in St. Croix to disturb their settlement in Puerto Rico, and after losing so much wealth to French and English pirates and Privateers, one could understand why.

1651: France drove off the Spanish through Monsignor Lonvilliers de Poincy who was the Governor of The French West Indies.

1653: Denmark, already involved in the Slave Trade by way of colonizing Africa and forcefully exporting Africans as slaves, was now planning to join in on the complete European colonization of the Caribbean - eventually colonizing St. Thomas in 1665 and St. John in 1694 -1718. St. Croix’ colonization by the Danes did not occur until 1733.

1654: St. Croix was turned over to the French - Knights of Malta a very rich and powerful Catholic sect controlled St. Croix for approximately fifteen years. They were afraid of catching Malaria and thought that it originated from the forests of trees and bushes so they burnt down much of the trees and bushes.

The process of burning trees is actually good for producing high quality fertile soil, this was not their goal but fortunately it helped to create fertile ground in St. Croix in later years when it was booming agriculturally in the late 18th to early 19th centuries.

1665: The French Revolution created a French West Indian Company. Christiansted French Town Basin was established by order of King Charles IV. St. Thomas was colonized by Denmark around that same period.

1674: The French Crown, dissatisfied with how the island was being run, took over the management and fought Great Britain for St. Croix.

1695: The French moved to Saint Dominique (Haiti), in large numbers and St. Croix’ Agricultural economy was not at a concentrated level. Haiti had more land and was not far away.

1697: Denmark set out to make a serious step into the Slave Triangle by establishing the Danish West Indian and New Guinea Company. It was so successful that by 1742 the Danes had established 264 plantations in St. Croix by leasing the land competitively to anyone that wanted land to cultivate for crops through the plantation system regardless of Nationality. Denmark was a neutral territory and this system was less discriminatory and open.

1733: Denmark purchased St. Croix from France. for $550,000 franc livres.

1736: Compulsory confirmation was introduced which required some ability to read.

1739: In Denmark; the Danes passed an ordinance to create schools in Denmark for their poor and peasant children to receive an education.

1742: 264 Plantations exist in St. Croix bustling economy.

1749: Fort Christianvaern was built in Christiansted north of the island. The fortress was later used as a police station and a court house.

1754: The Royal Academy of Art was established.

1760: Fort Frederik was completed and named after King Frederik V. in that same year the Crucian Rum Distillery was established this distillery went on to creating some of the finest rum in the world winning many gold medals in taste contests.

1766 – 1808: King Christian ruled Denmark. He kept many of his father's advisers but was challenged by an emerging charismatic leader in the court party; Johann Friedrick Struensee. Struensee was the royal physician but took control of the government established freedom of the press, eliminated torture andthe Privy Council, basically reorganized the government administration by changing the German chancery to a foreign ministry.

1771: Struensee was not well liked by some in government, after being made the royal secretary his policies upset industrialists, he had the support and protection of the Royal Guards however, for when they were ordered to disband, they mutinied.

1772: On January 17th Struensee was caught, arrested and beheaded. The new administration of aristocrats were not as friendly towards foreigners.

1773: Boston Tea Party

1776: A law was established that blocked foreigners from royal service.

1776: American Revolution occurred. This was where Alexander Hamilton was instrumental in not only strategic military prowess, but also in writing the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton was raised in St. Croix for at least 7 years.

1848: Peter von Scholten abolished slavery in St. Croix and all the Danish West Indies on July 3rd in Freedom City Fredericksted and subsequently traveled to the two other islands to read the declaration of their independence on the 4th and 5th in St. Thomas and St. John respectively. Under the able leadership of
General Budhoe and other freedom fighters that were fed up with the empty promises for freedom from slavery after every revolt and going to burn the entire island down and to its knees.

1862: Slaves “indentured servants” were brought to work, these actions were not well received.

1864: A Crucian contractor was chosen to build Government House his name was Richard Bright. Mr. Bright a master carpenter who lived in St. Thomas on Kongens Gade (King Street) and died in the summer months of 1866 before the edifice was completed.
1867: Government House was completed by George Nunes and Company.

1872: The capital was moved from St. Croix to St. Thomas. Saint Thomas had a newly built governors mansion and a bustling trading economy.

1878: The town of Frederiksted was burnt down to the ground during the great “Fire Burn” due to the African “slaves" attack on the economic infrastructure to counter the continued practice of slavery and the importing of Africans from Trinidad who were used as indentured servants despite the abolishment of  slavery.
1848. Queen Mary was one of the leaders of this attack.

1917: America purchases the four islands and 46 cays for 25,000,000 dollars worth of gold.  Crucian leaders and some from the populace petitioned the United States to be included in the purchase agreement. Not only were they experiencing negative relations with the Danes but St. Croix was not included in the first bid in 1866 under Secretary of State William Henry Seaward.

Naval Rule Era

Naval Administrators governed the islands

1917-1919: James Harrison Oliver; Rear Admiral of the U.S. Navy administered the Islands.

1920-1921: Joseph Wallace Oman; Rear Admiral of the U.S. Navy

1921: Cyril E. King was born on April 7th, a future leader in the world was to later to lead the Virgin Islands in principle and ideals. He attended St. Ann’s Catholic School and graduated from St. Mary’s Catholic School. He attended the American University in Washington D.C. and received a Bachelor of Science degree in Public Administration. Over his life time he would go on to receiving honorary degrees and many other accolades in public service to his community and America.

1921-1922: Sumner Ely Wetmore Kittelle; Rear Admiral of the U.S. Navy

1922-1923: Henry Hughs Hough; Captain of the U.S. Navy

1923-1925: Phillip Williams; Captain of the U.S. Navy

1925-1927: Martin Edward Trench; Captain of the U.S. Navy

1927-1931: Waldo Evans; Captain of the U.S. Navy

Civilian Rule Era

Governors appointed by the U.S. Dept. of the Interior

1931-1935: The first appointed Governor; Paul M. Pearson, was born on Oct.22, 1871 and died March 27, 1938.

1935-1941: The second elected Governor; Lawrence W. Cramer, was born on Dec. 26, 1897 and died Oct.18, 1978.

1941-1946: The third appointed Governor; Charles Harwood, was born on May 14, 1880 and died on Oct.23, 1950, the Charles Harwood highway was named after him.

1946-1949: The forth appointed Governor; William Henry Hustie, was born Nov.17.

1949: Cyril E. King started working in the office of U.S. Senator Humphrey. This lasted for approximately 11 years until he was appointed as V.I. Government Secretary under Kennedy, before he received that job he became senior staff member and worked as a researcher for a special subcommittee on disarmament. Senator Humphrey was born in 1904 and died April 21, 1976.

1950-1954: The fifth appointed Governor; Morris Fidanque DeCastro became the first native born governor.

1954-1955: The sixth appointed governor; Arcihbald Alphonso Alexander, was born May 14, 1888 and died Jan. 4, 1958. Archibald was appointed at a very mature age.

1956: Laurance S. Rockefeller the conservationist purchases and later donates 5000 acres (approximately 3/5of the island) to the V.I. National Park Service.

1955-1958: The seventh appointed Governor; Walter Arthur Gordon was born on Oct.10, 1894 and died April 2, 1976 at the ripe age of 81.

1958-1961: The eighth appointed Governor; John David Merwin was first native born administrator of the Virgin Islands, a sign of things to come. He was born on September 26, 1921.

1961: Cyril E. King was appointed as Government Secretary (equivalent to Lt. Governor) by John F. Kennedy.

1961-1969: The ninth appointed Governor; Ralph M. Paiewonsky was born on Nov.9, 1907 and died on his birthday on Nov.9, 1991.

§King was appointed as Government Secretary by John F. Kennedy. This position was the equivalent of the Lieutenant Governors position today.

1969-1970: The tenth and last appointed Governor; Melvin Evans, was appointed as Governor after the early resignation of Ralph M. Paiewonsky was accepted by then President Nixon. Something very curious about his resignation, he was probably aware of the up coming elections and the changes that were on the horizon. To save embarrassment he was probably asked to resign.


Self Governorship Era

Term limited elected officials, a supreme court, and a constitution

1970-1974: The first elected Governor; Melvin Evans was elected by the people of the Virgin Islands. He was the first person to be elected by the people after 53 years under American rule. Melvin was born on August 7, 1917 and died on Nov. 27, 1984. The time had come for the people to choose their ownadministrator. Melvin Evans wasn’t an easy choice over the charismatic Cyril E. King even though he served the people in the highest position by appointment of the President previously.

1970: Melvin Evans was elected as Governor after a run off election with Cyril E. King.

1974: Second elected Governor; Cyril E. King, was born on St. Croix April 7th, 1921 and died January 2nd, 1978 before he was able to complete his term in office.

1977: Cyril E. King wrote a congratulatory letter to Dawuud N. Nyamekye; formerly David M. Horsford after his victory winning the title as Prince of Carnival.

1978-1987: Third elected Governor; Juan Francisco Luis was born on July 10, 1940.  Juan Luis the incumbent lieutenant governor became governor.

1987-1995: Fourth elected Governor; Alexander A. Farrelly was born on Dec.29, 1925.

1995-1999: Fifth elected Governor, Dr. Roy Lester Schneider was born on May 13th,  1939.  Dr. Schneider was a former Prince of Carnival in St. Thomas and as governor pushed for the hospital to be named after him. An obvious affinity lighter or white complexion in women. He was viewed by many in
the community as being pompous and arrogant.

1999-2007: Sixth elected Governor; Charles W. Turnbull Ph.D. was elected Governor.

2002: Governor Charles W. Turnbull was re-elected as the seventh Governor.

§       The islands thrived under Turnbull’s administration.

§       He was re-elected as governor for a second term.

§       He was a historian and educator.

2007: Eighth elected Governor; John P. DeJongh was elected, with his running mate and Lieutenant Governor, Gregory R. Frances from St. Croix.

One of their goals in office is to stimulate St. Croix’ economy by encouraging the Cruise ship industry to try the island as a new destination while trying to provide some incentives.

Currently: St. Croix is more cultural than all the other islands combined, partly due to its agricultural past, lack of a strong tourism based economy and various celebrations and activities; agricutural fair, better land for the cultivation of crops.

Historically: St. Croix has always been more industrialized with the third largest oil refinery in the world and a distillery (Cruzan) that has been producing some of the finest rum in the world.

Government: St. John has one Senator (at large). The other two islands St. Thomas and St. Croix have seven senators each for a total of fifteen total. Under the new constitution these dynamics may change. There is now a growing desire in the community for changes to made in the legislature. Currently in the executive branches of government a Governor and Lt. Governor are elected every four years and fifteen senators in the Legislative Branches are elected every two years. There is also a Delegate to Congress but without voting rights in the House. Commissioners are appointed by the Governor and are approved by the Legislature. They head: Agriculture, Police, Housing Parks and Recreation, Education, Tourism, Planning and Natural Resources, Public Works In the judicial branch the District Court of the Virgin Islands and the Territorial Court exists.

2008: Road construction is on going for a highway that would connect to Center line road and the Melvin Evans highway.